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[hemmerling] Safety 2/2 - Design of safe Automation Systems & safe Embedded Systems

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Basic Design Rules

  • Always ask and answer the 2 questions, properly:
    1. What are the real risks?
    2. How may I pass the electromechanical system into a safe state?
  • If you don´t succeeed with that, forget about classical “safety design” by “Safety Integrity Levels” ( SIL ) for the protective gears of ”( Process ) Control Systems” ... as there will be no safety.

EC Directives

Software Tools for Design of safe Automation Systems & safe Embedded Systems

Safety Calculation Tools for IEC 61508, IEC 26262

  • The commercial “RiskCAT - Requirements Derivation from Risk Classes” for Windows.
      • The commercial “APIS IQ-RM”.
        • heise Software-Verzeichnis "APIS IQ-RM 6" - Download of a demo version.
        • “APIS IQ-RM Pro: Qualitätssicherung, Risikoanalyse und Anforderungsmanagement; erstellt Fehlermöglichkeits- und Einflussanalysen (FMEA) sowie Prozessablauf-Diagramme; methodenkonform nach VDA, DRBFM, AIAG und SAE”.
        • The graphics FMEA editor of the IQ tools looks like a Mindmap ( tree ) software :-).
        • Why use “APIS IQ-RM Pro”, and not a self-made spreadsheet RM / FMEA solution for Excel, OpenOffice Calc?
          • If you want to deal with functional safety, You need the “RM Pro” edition ( not RM, not FMEA, not “FMEA Pro” ).
          • The varianz of possible faults can just be achieved with a tool, which makes use of the VDA ( VDA “Band 4” ) approach.
          • With self-made spreadsheet FMEAs, the experts just name faults, which they already know.
          • With self-made spreadsheet solutions you have technical problems, if in an analysis tree / analysis chain, the human analyist detects that an analyis structure used at another point of the analyis tree / analysis chain might be used as duplicate.

Safety Calculation Tools for DIN EN ISO 13849

Safety Calculation Tools for DIN EN ISO 13849 & IEC 61508

Safety Calculation Tools for DIN 50191, VDI 0104, Machinery Directive 2006/42/EG

  • ATX Hardware GmbH - Paper “Gefährdungsanalyse - Typenbestimmung - zur Minimierung der elektrischen Gefährdung nach DIN 50191, VDI 0104, Maschinenrichtlinie 2006/42/EG. Version 1.4 vom JE”.

Commercial Software Development Tools for Safety Applications

Development of Applications with Safety relevant Functions

Safety Norms

CE Marking

EC Direction on electromagnetic conductivity (EMC)

Low Voltage Directive ( Niederspannungsrichtlinie )

IEC 61508 / IEC 26262

Calculation Methods & Results

  • Safety Integrity Level ( SIL ).


Semiconductor Manufacturers's Programs for Functional Safety


Safety Patterns



Reliability of Electronic Devices ( FIT Values ) and Facilities

Reliability of Electronic Devices ( FIT Values )
  1. Norm “Siemens SN29500”.
    • Publisher & order address, as of 2012-01-01:
      Siemens AG
      Corporate Technology
      Corporate Intellectual Property and Functions
      CT IP IR LIS
      Anton Oliv
      Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
      D-81739 München
      Tel.: +49 89 636-40682 
      Fax: +49 89 636-40688 
      E-Mail: anton.oliv ( AT )
    • Issues, names and purchase prices of the norm, published as physical book just by request of customers: about 660.90 EUR + VAT as of 2012-01-01.
SN_xxxxx-xxxx Name Issue Price in EUR, plus VAT
SN 29500-1 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Erwartungswerte, Allgemeines 01.2004 51.90
SN 29500-1 H1 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Hinweis 1 zu Teil 1; Erwartungswerte, Allgemeines, Ausgabestand 07.2011 0.00
SN 29500-2 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 2: Erwartungswerte von integrierten Schaltkreisen 09:2010 55.90
SN 29500-3 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 3: Erwartungswerte von Diskreten Halbleitern 06.2009 53.30
SN 29500-4 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 4: Erwartungswerte für Passive Bauelemente 03.2004 53.30
SN 29500-4 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 4: Erwartungswerte für Passive Bauelemente 03.2004 53.30
SN 29500-5 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 5: Erwartungswerte von elektrischen Verbindungsstellen, elektrischen Steckverbindern und Steckfassungen 06.2004 45.00
SN 29500-7 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 7: Erwartungswerte von Relais 11.2005 51.90
SN 29500-9 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil9: Erwartungswerte von Schaltern und Tasten 11.2005 45.00
SN 29500-10 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 10: Erwartungswerte von Melde- und Signallampen 12.2005 41.90
SN 29500-11 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Erwartungswerte von Schützen 07.2011 51.90
SN 29500-12 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Erwartungswerte für Optische Halbleiter Signalempfänger 02.2008 53.30
SN 29500-15 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 15: Erwartungswerte für elektromechanische Schutzgeräte in Niederspannungsnetzen 07.2009 54.50
SN 29500-16 Ausfallraten Bauelemente; Teil 16; Erwartungswerte für elektromechanische Befehls- und Meldegeräte und Positionsschalter in Niederspannungsnetzen 08.2010 49.70
Reliability of Atomic Power Industry Facilities
Reliability of Electronic Devices ( FIT Values ) and Facilities for the Process Industry
  1. NAMUR NE130, based on VDI/VDE 2180 and NE79.
  2. VDI/VDE 2180.
  3. SINTEF.
  4. exida.
      • exida "Safety Equipment Reliability Handbook" - “The SERH provides a collection of failure rate data that is applicable for use in Safety Instrumented System (SIS) conceptual design verification in the process industry”, “The book set is a hard copy of exida’s SERH database that contains a vast amount of equipment item reliability data”.
        1. Volume 01: Sensors ( includes Fire and Gas, Flame Monitoring, Flow, Level, Pressure, Proximity, and Temperature measurements ).
        2. Volume 02: Logic Solvers and Interface Modules ( includes Barriers, Surge protection devices, Relays, logic solvers, Fire and Gas Systems, and solenoid drivers ).
        3. Volume 03: Final Elements ( includes Final Element interfaces such as solenoids and digital valve positioners, Pneumatic interfaces such as Quick Exhaust valves, Actuators, Valves such as ball, butterfly, gate, etc. valves, and Gas Pressure Regulating Valves ).

IEC 61511

The Norm


Maschinenrichtlinie 2006/42/EG, DIN EN ISO 13849, ( DIN EN 954-1 )

Calculation Methods & Results

  • Performance Level ( PL ).


Related Norms



DIN 50128

DO 254

DIN IEC 60730 & VDE 0631


RTCA / DO-128 B 92

Design Packages for Functional Safety ( Embedded Microcontroller ) Applications

Safety Lifecycle Engineering For Automation


Popular Hardware

Software Tools


Functional Safety Experts


  • Experts suggested to configure the input points of safe Rockwell PLCs as “Songle Safety Input” ( and not “Equivalent” and not “Complimentary” ).
    • The testing if the input points are antivalent or equivalent should be done by PLC software, instead of the hardware.
    • The discrepancy timeout should be done by PLC software, instead of the hardware.
  • Experts told me, if you modify an old machine in Germany, there is no need for CE conformity :-), but the machine must conform to the German Operational Safety Ordinance ( “Betriebssicherheitsverordnung” ):-(.

Forums, Newsgroups

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