Trace: » labour.html

[hemmerling] Labour, Employment, Jobs

Labour Networks and Student Networks

Job Applications

Demands for a Job Application

  1. Objective qualification of the job applicant ( “Objektive Eignung des Bewerbers” ).
  2. Subjective seriousness of the job applicant ( “Subjektive Ernsthaftigkeit des Bewerbers” ).

Job Application as Software Developer or IT Administrator

The Point of view of the staff-seeking Company

Competitions & Quizes

Certifications - Pro/Contra


  • A “2:1” is a grade that is part of the grading system in the UK for Bachelor degrees, it is the equivalent of a “B” grade.


Types of Job Interviews

  1. Unstructured interview.
  2. Partially structured interview.
    • The interviewer prepares some questions.
    • Some presettings may be given to the interviewer.
  3. Structured interview.
    • The interviewer prepares questions.
    • Presettings ( contents, sequence, number and formulation of the questions )are be given to the interviewer.
    • Rating of the answers by a scale.
    • The goal is to get comparable and objective results.
  4. Competence-based interview.
    • The applicant is asked to tell about his behaviour in specific situations.

"Agentur für Arbeit" / "Jobcenter" Tips, as of 2012-06, 2013-12

  • If a company invites a job seeker for an interview to its office, it*s industry standard here in Germany that the job-seeker does not pay the travel expenses. The compensation of the travel expenses by the inviting company requires special negotiations, before the visit. Just be shure to ask when you are invited for a job interview, after the interview it's often too late.
    • In Germany, if the job seeker gets ALG I or ALG II / Hartz4 from the offices “Agentur für Arbeit” / “Jobcenter” or is registered as “Job Seeker” at the “Agentur für Arbeit”, the office can compensate travel expenses by the request “Antrag auf Gewährung eine Förderung aus dem Vermittelungsbudget gem. $45 Sozialgesetzbuch - Drittes Buch - (SGB III) für die Anbahnung einer versicherungspflichtigen Beschäftigung”.
      • You have to ask your officer at the “Agentur für Arbeit” / “Jobcenter” for each travel, for a request document and an extra visit confirmation document. You need personal documents, do not print empty standard documents!
      • If the company doesn´t pay a compensation for the travel, the “Agentur für Arbeit” / “Jobcenter” can grant a physical railway ticket ( on paper ), ordered by its own business customer account at Deutsche Bahn, or 0.20 EUR/km by car, up to 130 EUR by car.
      • If the company is willing to pay an insufficient compensation for the travel, the “Agentur für Arbeit” / “Jobcenter” might pay the rest. In this case the job seeker orders and buys the ticket by himself / herself.
      • The company has to confirm the visit by signing the visit confirmation document supplied by the labour office “Anlage zum Antrag auf Gewährung eine Förderung aus dem Vermittelungsbudget gemäß $45 Sozialgesetzbuch - Drittes Buch - (SGB III) vom 21.04.2011”.
  • Job seekers may get up to 260 EUR/a as compensation for application expenses ( 6 5 EUR per application, so 6 5 EUR each for up to 52 applications/a - now 6 EUR instead of 5 EUR since 2013 ), by the request “Antrag auf Gewährung eine Förderung aus dem Vermittelungsbudget gem. $45 Sozialgesetzbuch - Drittes Buch - (SGB III) für die Anbahnung einer versicherungspflichtigen Beschäftigung”.
    • Note that you can´t apply for compensation for job applications done in times of special actions ( “Maßnahmen” ), like courses and training paid by the labour office.
    • In general, the compensation can be applied both for online applications and traditional paper application. Ask your officer at the labour office if this is different your special case ( i.e. that there is just compensation for paper applications ).
  • The labour office may grant a one-time government grant “Eingliederungszuschuss” to companyies which hire jobseekers who have diffulties to find a job. The company has to apply at “Arbeitgeberservice” for the government grant, before hireing.

CVs / Resumes / Profiles in XML Format



US Resumes (Application Homepages), for Comparison

Tips how to setup Community Profiles as CV, for Job-Seeking


  • Limit in the number of memberships of groups:
    • “You're already a member of 100 groups which is the maximum number allowed”. Once I was member of 139 XING groups, until XING prevented me to join any further groups. Remember if I want to become member of another group, i HAVE to be member of less than 100 groups… so I had to leave at least 40 groups to join another group…
    • As of 2014-05, I was told that the limit to be member of 100 groups does not apply to groups which are already transformed to the new group product ( “Neues Gruppenprodukt” ) by its group owners.
  • As free basic member, you can communicate.
    • With contacts, by writing messages ( in the past, this was restricted ).
    • With any member, by writing a message in the guestbook.
    • With any member, by writing a message when asking ( 1-time ) for contact.
  • Especially if you are job-seeker or freelance, it might be a good idea to create a special entry in your “Professional experience” list, with a checked option “Display this job next to my name and at the top of my profile page”. In the fields “Title” and “Company”, you might enter your professinal skills in the form of a little ”Elevator Pitch” ( e.g. “Developer for Embedded Systems” ).
  • Don´t forget to enter your (academic) title of your profession at “Home / Settings / My personal data / Academic degree”. It's a text field, so you can enter there “anything” :-).
  • Even as freelancer, you might create a free ”BASIC Company Profile”.
  • In the fields “Wants” / “Haves”, you might use a line of underscores (”————————————————————————————————————————–” ) as formatting element.
  • In the field “Wants”, you should mention.
    1. Things which you want, not what you offer.
      • If you look for a job in Germany, as engineer, you might use terms like “Anstellung, akademische Tätigkeit mit Bereitschaft zur gründlichen Einarbeitung, Arbeit, Auftrag, Aufträge, Beschäftigung für akademische Berufsanfänger, Festanstellung, neue Herausforderungen, neue Herausforderung, Job für Hochschulabsolvent ohne nachweisbare Berufserfahrung, Jobs für Hochschulabsolventen, projektbezogene Mitarbeit, Projekt, Projekte, Stelle”.
      • You might also describe your services with statements like “immediately available as (profession) in (zip code) (next big town), (website), (E-Mail), (telephone number)” ( “sofort verfügbar als (Beruf) in (PLZ) (nächstgelegener größerer Ort), (Website), (E-Mail), (Telephonnummer)” ).
      • If you are a lawyer, you should not write “clients who look for legal advice” or even “customers”, “clients”! You would just attract other lawyers who look for new clients, by making use of the special search options of “professional” or “recruiter” accounts.... :-(.
    2. Things which you can´t do.
    3. Things which you are willing to pay for.
  • If the XING search engines tells you that a search result may not be displayed with a free basic account.
  • Use the “Tagline” ( German: “Profilspruch” ) to enter data which is visible even for visitors with which you are not connected, e.g. E-Mail, telephone number, job seeking status ( e.g. “looking for new contracts” ) and last successful busines activity ( e.g. 1 sentence about the topic of the last completed project ).
  • To get a reputation as freelancer or jobseeker, write useful and valuable articles in groups with topics which belong to your core competences.
  • Job seekers might use the “Job Search”, with the option “Create a job alert and get the latest job listings by email”.
  • You might put a link to your GULP profile in the XING profile :-).
  • You may recommend group posts to contacts ( “Rolf Hemmerling recommends a group post with the subject XXX” / “Rolf Hemmerling empfiehlt den Forenbeitrag XXX” ). If you have many HR staff members in your contacts, it might be useful to point to group posts in “job seeking” groups, where you describe your skills and job preferences. Remember just to point to groups, which can be read without membership - as you can´t expect that your audience is member in the special group where you poste.
  • XING group "Die XING Gruppe", message "Anzahl der unbestätigten Kontaktanfragen", 2012-02-22 → The number of open unanswered contact requests is upgraded from 20 to 50 :-).
  • XING "XING Beta Labs" - “Testplattform für neue Funktionen auf XING”.
  • On XING, profile pictures should have a white background, for better integration on the profile page.


    • There are several reasons why you may be asked to enter an email address when you send invitations:
      • The recipient's email preferences are set to only receive invitations from members who know their email address.
      • A number of recipients have clicked I don't know [name] after getting your invitations.
      • An invitation has already been sent to the member.


Social Community Experts



Telephone Calls for Sales and Job Applications

Labour Law, Employment Law, Hireing and Fireing


Labour Units & Employer Organizations

Christlicher Gewerkschaftsbund Deutschlands (CGB)


IG Metall

Employer Organizations


With Temporary Employment / Integration Leasing Jobs, Workless Time Periods are unpaid


  • Typical calculation of Temporary Employment / Integration Leasing in Germany, taken as example the lowest-paid worker ( “Produktionshelfer”, “ungelernter Arbeiter”,.. ), as of 2011-12:
In English language Cost of Temporary Employment = Salary + Illness- and social-insurance contributions + Interest margin
In German language Verrechnungssatz = Lohn + Kranken- und Sozialversicherungs-Beiträge + Marge
Officially stated calculation in EUR/h for lowest-paid worker ( BZA tariff E1 ) by a placement officer 11 EUR/h - 12 EUR/h = 7.89 EUR/h + 2 EUR/h + 1-2 EUR/h
25% 25%
Inofficial calculation for lowest-paid worker ( BZA tariff E1 ) - whistle-blowing by a labour office staff member 18.50 EUR/h = 7.89 EUR/h + 2 EUR/h + 8.50 EUR/h
25% 100%


  1. 50 Top! - Testen - Orienieren - Potentiale Nutzen, Hannover - “Perspektive 50plus - Beschäftigungspakte in den Regionen”.

Letter of Reference

  • infoquelle - “Das Wirtschaftsmagazin informiert Sie über Themen rund um den Arbeitsplatz, zu Versicherungen, bei der Personalentwicklung, der Karriere, Gesundheit, ..”

Checklist for Temporary Employment

  1. What is the appropriate tariff contract ?
  2. For temporary staff, the lower wage rate per hour is often compensated by a higher expense allowance. What are the associated risks ?
  3. What are the components of the wage ( wage rate per hour, bonus, award, special payment ) ?
  4. Do you get a compensatoin for the expense allowance / travel expenses ?
  5. How much vacation is granted to me ?
  6. Will times without assignment be used for vacation / unpaid vacation, as bridgeover ?
  7. What ist the trustful contact person in case of questions and problems ?
  8. Which is the appropriate works committee ?
  9. Is it possible to change from the temporary employment to a work contract with the hireing company ( the client ) ?
  10. Is there time for consideration, after the submission of documents ?
  11. Does the hireing company ( the client ) teach me about the health and accident risks at the workplace ?

Help and Self-Help for Unemployed People and People with precarious Jobs

Advisor Books for Economic Householding

Free Books

Affordable commercial Cooking Books


Online Education and Further Training

How to make the transition from "Junor" to "Senior"

Forums, Newsgroups, Blogs



Market Analysis about Wages for Graduates

The Future of Labour

Job Application Software

  • JobThinder-Software - “Dieses Bewerbungsprogramm (JobThinder-Software) übernimmt beinahe alle Aufgaben bei Ihrer JobSuche (Recherche nach offenen Stellen, auf unzählige Arten) und wendet Methoden an, die Sie selbst nur schwer durchführen können. Einfach nur die Berufsbezeichnungen und die Bezirke eingeben und schon fängt der JobThinder für Sie zu arbeiten an”.


  • I was told, that there are about 85.000 IT companies in Germany, according to official BITCOM statistics, in 2019 :-).

Appropriate OpenDirectory Directory Pages

en/labour.html.txt · Last modified: 2022/01/24 15:56 (external edit) · []
Recent changes RSS feed Powered by PHP Valid XHTML 1.0 Valid CSS Driven by DokuWiki