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[hemmerling] Fieldbuses and Automation Networks

Automotive Networks and Data Formats

Automation Networks and Protocols

AS-Interface ( Actuator Sensor Interface, AS-i, AS-i Safety, ASI, ASI-Bus )





The Organisation


Free Training

Free Software Tools

  • Wireshark is able to decode PROFINET telegrams :-).
    • If you have a standard 100MBit network switch, due to the much more higher transmission rate of PROFINET telegrams in comparison to TCP/IP communications, such a tool might be overflooded with messages. As Wireshark is using Windows time synchronisation, it might be that 2 messages get the same timestampe. This makes the data unusuable for many aspects of protocol analysis. Both PROFINET, EtherCat and Ethernet/IP use the “Sync Mode” and have the same timing problem, while Windows is the platform.
    • It is even used for hardware certification, together with special network hardware which is able to do 100MBit full-duplex ( e.g. Hilscher Gesellschaft für Systemautomation mbH "netANALYZER Scope",whic is able to record and store full-duplex data, i.e. 2 channels, with 10ns timestamps ).
    • I was told by experts, that PROFINET network analysis with Wireshark should work properly, if you use a 1GBit network switch,
    • To overcome such timing problems, most PROFINET network devices are equipped with a 2-port or 3-port switch, instead of traditional network hardware with just a simple single Ethernet interface.

PROFINET Technologies

PROFIDRIVE Community Implementation
  • Experts told me, that the PROFIDRIVE community implementation was implemented on
    • SIEMENS PROFINET controller.
  • “PROFINET RT” works with standard Ethernet controllers, with standard Ethernet controller chips.
  • “PROFINET IRT” with its realtime requirements just works with “special hardware”, i.e. with a special PROFINET controller chip.
Media Redundancy
Routing of PROFINET
  • PROFINET may not work over routers.
    • In opposite to with PROFIBUS, with PROFINET there is no “Master-Slave” communications structure.
    • PROFINET allowe communications of network participants which are situated in different physical lines of a PROFINET network.
    • However, PROFINET's network can´t be spread over routers, i.e. PROFINET is not routing-enabled, as it is a “Layer 2” protocol to enable faster communications than standard Ethernet protocols ( e.g. TCP/IP ), or even to enable realtime communications.
      • “Hubs work at layer 1 of the ISO/OSI seven layer model. Hubs are not recommended for industrial networks because they send an incoming message on any port out of every other port. This creates too much traffic to maintain deterministic behavior on the network. Switches operate at layer 2. In the Ethernet world this uses the physical address of the device – the MAC address. Layers 3 (IP) and 4 (TCP or UDP) are not involved. Routers use layer 3 and communicate using the IP address. Routers are necessary when communicating from one subnet to another”.
      • “PROFINET RT uses layers 1, 2, and 7 of the ISO stack just like PROFIBUS and other fieldbuses do. We do this to reduce jitter. But since it does not use IP, it can’t pass through a router. Fortunately, PROFINET CBA (Component Based Automation, our peer-to-peer communications) allows us to use TCP/IP for communications, too… and that is routable. So the short answer after the long background: Yes, PROFINET is routable using PROFINET CBA. (Caveat: using TCP/IP and going through a router will introduce some modest delays compared to PROFINET RT.)”.
    • PROFINET requires “protocol transparent Layer 2 communications”. In opposite, TCP/IP just requires “protocol transparent Layer 3 communications” and by this ( the use of an IP address ), it is routable by a network routers.
    • It is not easy to find a PROFINET IRT eanbled network switch :-(. Standard network switches are not suitable for PROFINET IRT communications :-(.

Third Party Software

Budget Training Hardware

Raspberry Pi as PROFIBUS RT Controller




Single Pair Ethernet

Time-Sensitive Networking ( TSN )

  • This was one of the TOP-3 topics on HannoverFairIndustry 2021, along with “Single Pair Ethernet” and “5G” :-).
  • I was told by experts in 2017, that:
    • TSN is “The Future” and might become the successor of PROFINET RT / IRT, as the protocol allows low-level synchronisation and, by IPV6, will enable data encryption during data transmission.
    • It would be an industry goal to equip all Ethernet chips with the necessary additional TSM functionality, so that in a near future, all computers and IOT/Industry4.0 devices are equipped with a TSN enabled Ethernet interface.

Internet-of-Things & Industry 4.0 M2M Networks and Protocols


Constrained Application Protocol ( CoAP )

The Protocol




IoT Middleware

Data Distribution Services ( DDS )

Eclipse Kapua, Eclipse Kura & Evryware IOT, Red Hat Foundation for IOT

Eclipse Kapua, Eclipse Kura & Evryware IOT
EUROTECH S.p.A. "Evryware IOT"
EUROTECH S.p.A. "ReliaCELL 10-20"
Red Hat Foundation for IOT

Some other important IoT Middleware, according to VDC Research in 2014, 2015, 2016

  • AllJoyn.
  • CORBA.
  • DeviceHive.
  • Eclipse Kura.
  • Eclipse Mihini.
  • Eclipse Ponte.
  • Eclipse SCADA.
  • Eclipse SmartHome.
  • Eurotech Everywhere Software Framework (ESF).
  • Intel Common Connectivity Framework (CCF).
  • IoTivity (OCF) → new in 2016.
  • IPSO Alliance Web Objects.
  • Java ME Embedded.
  • Java SE Embedded.
  • OneM2M.
  • OpenJDK → new in 2015
  • OSGi.
  • Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM).
  • OMA Lightweight Device Management (LWM2M).
  • Oracle Event Processing Embedded.
  • Samsung SAMI framework.

Some other IoT Middleware

Some other important IoT/M2M Protocols, according to VDC Research in 2014, 2015, 2016

Some other "Libraries" for Embbbed Systems, according to VDC Research in 2014

Linux Distributions for Embedded Systems
Cloud Computing Platform

Messenger Services with API ( Slack, Twitter,... )


  • By its API, you may use the messaging service for IOT communications:
    • Output of IOT data.
    • Entering commands.
  • Warning: If you exceeed the limited data volume set by the online service provider, your account will be locked.

Data Distribution Service ( DDS )

MQ Telemetry Transport ( MQTT )

The Protocol


MQTT Broker
Multi-Protocol Message Broker
    • EN.Wikipedia "RabbitMQ", DE.Wikipedia "RabbitMQ" - “Originally implemented the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and has since been extended with a plug-in architecture to support Streaming Text Oriented Messaging Protocol (STOMP), MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT), and other protocols”.

Online Services

Support by PLCs

  • As of 2018-04, both new PLCs of WAGO and Beckhoff support MQTT as FUP Insternet stack protocol bricks, in their libraries :-).




PJON ( Padded Jittering Operative Network )

  • GitHub " gioblu / PJON" - “PJON ( Padded Jittering Operative Network ) is an experimental, arduino-compatible, multi-master, multi-media network protocol”. “PJON operates on a wide range of media, data links and existing protocols like PJDL, PJDLR, PJDLS, Serial, RS485, USB, ASK/FSK, LoRa, UDP, TCP, MQTT and ESPNOW”.


Open user communication ( OUC )

SIEMENS S7 Protocol

Modbus TCP, OPC, Open Source Drivers

Basic TCP/IP Communication Siemens PLC S7-1200 with Windows PC - without any ModBus, OPC, CapServer, or other HMI component


The Service

Hardware Chips & Evaluation Boards

Free Online Services

Time-Sensitive Networking

The Protocol & the Organisations



WebService ( WS ) / WebSocket ( WSS, WS ), WebSocket Protocol ( WSP )

XMPP/REST ( Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol/Representational State Transfer )


Networks for Building Automation

Field Busses for Building Automation



Local Control Network ( LCN )


Industrial Partners
    • “LonTalk, developed by Echelon, is a standard protocol, and an ANSI and ISO standard”.
    • Unlike BACnet, LonMark is a proprietary protocol developed by the Echelon Corporation in conjunction with Motorola in the early 1990s. The LonMark standard is based on the proprietary communications protocol called LonTalk. The LonTalk protocol establishes a set of rules to manage communications within a network of cooperating devices. To simplify implementation of the protocol, Echelon chose to work with Motorola to develop a specialized communications microprocessor called the Neuron”.
    • “While LonTalk addresses the issue of how devices communicate, it does not consider the content of the communication. A second protocol, known as LonWorks, defines the content and structure of the information that is exchanged”.




Profibus DP

Power Line Communication ( PLC )


Wireless Field Busses for Building Automation

Multimedia Systems and Busses for Building Automation

Sub Busses for Building Automation

Electric Metering

Field Buses für Eletric Metering

Data Formats & Data Protocols for Electric Meters

Available Meters and its Interfaces & Protocols

      • “Die neuen EQ- Energiezähler von ABB, mit ihrer einzigartigen Funktionalität, sind 'Bausteine' eines Sub- Metering- Systems und bieten unter Einbeziehung ihrer Funktionalitäten, eine nahtlose Integration in Echtzeit- Automatisierungs- und Informationssysteme”.
      • “Zur Grundausführung aller EQ- Meter gehört die Multimeterfunktion sowie ein Impuls oder Alarmausgang. Mit der eingebauten Infrarot Schnittstelle kann über Adapter die Integration in alle industriell bedeutenden Bus und Übertragungssysteme gewährleistet werden”.
      • Produktprospekt “Three phase electricity meters A43 and A44. EQ meters ..from ABB”.
      • “ABB electricity meter EQ A43” & “ABB electricity meter EQ A44” are shipped with Modbus RTU & M-Bus interfaces. By an additional proprietary optical interface with proprietary protocol, a KNX module may be attached to the meter.

Protocols for Building Automation

Process Automation Networks and Protocols

IEC 61850, IEC 61850 MMS, IEC 61400-25


Tools and Servers

IEEE 1588

Telecontrol Protocols for the Process Industry

Distributed Network Protocol ( "DNP3" )

  • EN.Wikipedia "DNP3", DE.Wikipedia "DNP3" ( Distributed Network Protocol ) - “A set of communications protocols used between components in process automation systems. It was developed for communications between various types of data acquisition and control equipment. It plays a crucial role in SCADA systems, where it is used by SCADA Master Stations (aka Control Centers), Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), and Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)”.


  • See in other sections of this page.

IEC 60870

DIN 43863 IP-Telemetrie

SINAUT ST7 telemetry system based on SIMATIC S7

  • SINAUT ST7 telemetry system based on SIMATIC S7.


Some other Process Automation Networks and Protocols

Electronic Busses for Embedded Systems

Electronic Busses in Devices

Protocols for Communication with Embedded Systems



The Framework
Firmata Application "Jonny Five"
Firmata Applications by Thomas Weinert

Implementation of Electronic Busses with Microcontrollers

  • Standad UARTs of microcontrollers are not suitable for implementation of PROFIBUS, MODBUS or other high-speed serial communication ( as a standard UART can't be configured to run with 12 Mhz bus clock speed ). You need specially designed devices ( on the microcontroller chip ) for such.

Important Fieldbuses and Wireless Fieldbusses for IOT, according to VDC Research in 2017-02

  • CAN bus.
  • BACnet.
  • ZigBee.
  • WirelessHART.
  • ISA100.
  • MiWi.
  • SNAP.
  • Thread.
  • 6LoWPAN.
  • SigFox.
  • LoRa.
  • Narrowband IoT (NB-IOT).
  • AllJoyn.
  • Apple HomeKit.
  • AMQP.
  • CoAP.
  • DDS.
  • ETSI.
  • IFTTT.
  • MQTT.
  • OMA LWM2M.
  • OPC.
  • SNMP.
  • Weave.
  • Websockets (JSON).
  • XDMF.

Medical Networks and Protocols


Events & Conferences


Forums, Newsgroups, Communities

Appropriate OpenDirectory Directory Pages

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