CC-Link Partner Association ( CLPA ) - CLPA Europe - “CC-Link”, “CC-Link IE”. “CLPA and PI to cooperate for a transparent network structure. Interoperability between CC-Link IE and PROFINET planned for end of 2016 with 2 solutions ( Coupler and Link )”.
The “Geysitech (Bayern-Hessen) Protocol” ( “Geysitech Protokoll” / “Bayern-Hessen Datenprotokoll” ) for climate telemetry systems, used by the IT infrastructure of the german trade and industrial inspectorates ( “Gewerbeaufsichtsamt” ) in Germany.
If you have a standard 100MBit network switch, due to the much more higher transmission rate of PROFINET telegrams in comparison to TCP/IP communications, such a tool might be overflooded with messages. As Wireshark is using Windows time synchronisation, it might be that 2 messages get the same timestampe. This makes the data unusuable for many aspects of protocol analysis. Both PROFINET, EtherCat and Ethernet/IP use the “Sync Mode” and have the same timing problem, while Windows is the platform.
In opposite to with PROFIBUS, with PROFINET there is no “Master-Slave” communications structure.
PROFINET allowe communications of network participants which are situated in different physical lines of a PROFINET network.
However, PROFINET's network can´t be spread over routers, i.e. PROFINET is not routing-enabled, as it is a “Layer 2” protocol to enable faster communications than standard Ethernet protocols ( e.g. TCP/IP ), or even to enable realtime communications.
“Hubs work at layer 1 of the ISO/OSI seven layer model. Hubs are not recommended for industrial networks because they send an incoming message on any port out of every other port. This creates too much traffic to maintain deterministic behavior on the network. Switches operate at layer 2. In the Ethernet world this uses the physical address of the device – the MAC address. Layers 3 (IP) and 4 (TCP or UDP) are not involved. Routers use layer 3 and communicate using the IP address. Routers are necessary when communicating from one subnet to another”.
“PROFINET RT uses layers 1, 2, and 7 of the ISO stack just like PROFIBUS and other fieldbuses do. We do this to reduce jitter. But since it does not use IP, it can’t pass through a router. Fortunately, PROFINET CBA (Component Based Automation, our peer-to-peer communications) allows us to use TCP/IP for communications, too… and that is routable. So the short answer after the long background: Yes, PROFINET is routable using PROFINET CBA. (Caveat: using TCP/IP and going through a router will introduce some modest delays compared to PROFINET RT.)”.
PROFINET requires “protocol transparent Layer 2 communications”. In opposite, TCP/IP just requires “protocol transparent Layer 3 communications” and by this ( the use of an IP address ), it is routable by a network routers.
It is not easy to find a PROFINET IRT eanbled network switch . Standard network switches are not suitable for PROFINET IRT communications .
TSN is “The Future” and might become the successor of PROFINET RT / IRT, as the protocol allows low-level synchronisation and, by IPV6, will enable data encryption during data transmission.
It would be an industry goal to equip all Ethernet chips with the necessary additional TSM functionality, so that in a near future, all computers and IOT/Industry4.0 devices are equipped with a TSN enabled Ethernet interface.
Mozilla Add-ons for Firefox "Copper (Cu)" - “The Copper (Cu) CoAP user-agent for Firefox installs a handler for the 'coap' URI scheme and allows users to browse and interact with Internet of Things devices”.
The OpenSource OpenDDS, GitHub "objectcomputing/OpenDDS" - “An open source C++ implementation of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS). Java applications can use OpenDDS through JNI bindings”.
Eclipse "Paho - Open Source messaging for M2M" - “The Paho project provides scalable open-source implementations of open and standard messaging protocols aimed at new, existing, and emerging applications for Machine‑to‑Machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT)”.
The free “IBM Integration Bus for Developers” includes “IBM WebSphere MQ” and is by this a valuable free GUI tool for developers to play with MQTT Protocol. E.g. to explore how “Last Will and Testament” messaging works.
868MHz global network, currently in France and UK, starting in 2015 in Germany ( pilot project in München ). You can send a maximum of 140 messages/day by a device, which are repeated three times. The estimated costs per device are about 5$/y or 5 EUR/y.
Atmel Corporation "ATAK55002-V2" - Shield for Arduino. “The ATA8520 device is preprogrammed with SIGFOX ID and PAC for registration at the SIGFOX backend. It can communicate to any SIGFOX base station in receiving distance”.
Atmel Corporation "ATAK55002-V3" - Extension board for Xplained PRO kits. “The ATA8520 device is preprogrammed with SIGFOX ID and PAC for registration at the SIGFOX backend. It can communicate to any SIGFOX base station in receiving distance”.
Atmel Corporation "Smart RF / Tranceiver ICs" - As of 2015-06, there are no SIGFOX transceiver chips available. I was told by experts, that this might change in the near future, as receiving commands from the SIGFOX base stations might be a useful features, from point of view of SIGFOX.
Bus-Profi Gebäudeleittechnik GmbH - Schalten, Überwachen, Steuern, Regeln. Ihr Partner für moderne Gebäudetechnik, “Planung, Beratung und Service für Gebäudeleittechnik / Gebäudeautomation”, “Deutschlands größte Knowledgebase für LCN-Gebäudeleittechnik und Handel für Komponenten zum LCN-System”.
KNX Association "ETS" ( “Engineering Tool Software” ) - “Ein herstellerunabhängiges Installationswerkzeug für die Planung und Konfiguration intelligenter Haus- und Gebäudesystemtechnik mit dem KNX System”.
Modbus is based on a 4-wire RS485 physical connection. By this it is a “Master-Slave” architecture, i.e. there is just one master.
Modbus TCP is a standard instrumentation interface bus, while it is not a standard for SIEMENS PLCs ( with Profibus as interface bus standard ). Modbus TCP is not limited to network subnets, but it is able to communicate over network routers .
Modbus is considered by experts to be “simple”, “outdated” and “weak”, especially as there is no time-stamp transfered with the data, automatically.
HW group "HWg-PWR: M-Bus IP energy meter (SNMP, WEB)" - “M-Bus or S0 pulse counter? The M-Bus is a standard in energy metering. As opposed to pulse counters (S0), it works with absolute values (acquired data can be used as an argument against the utility bill). At the same time allows working with additional values (quantities), such as voltage, current, flow, drift, etc.”.
“Die neuen EQ- Energiezähler von ABB, mit ihrer einzigartigen Funktionalität, sind 'Bausteine' eines Sub- Metering- Systems und bieten unter Einbeziehung ihrer Funktionalitäten, eine nahtlose Integration in Echtzeit- Automatisierungs- und Informationssysteme”.
“Zur Grundausführung aller EQ- Meter gehört die Multimeterfunktion sowie ein Impuls oder Alarmausgang. Mit der eingebauten Infrarot Schnittstelle kann über Adapter die Integration in alle industriell bedeutenden Bus und Übertragungssysteme gewährleistet werden”.
“ABB electricity meter EQ A43” & “ABB electricity meter EQ A44” are shipped with Modbus RTU & M-Bus interfaces. By an additional proprietary optical interface with proprietary protocol, a KNX module may be attached to the meter.
NettedAutomation GmbH - “The Net is the Automation. We bring people, systems and devices together” - “IEC61850Li® - Lite implementations. The free evaluation DLL for an IEC 61850 (IEC 61400-25) as a Starter Kit for Client/Server and Publisher/Subscriber is now available”.
SISCO, Inc "MMS-EASE Lite" - “A source code product for embedding the IEC 61850 protocols in Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) such as RTUs, reclosers, PLCs, meters and other resource constrained systems”.
EN.Wikipedia "DNP3", DE.Wikipedia "DNP3" ( Distributed Network Protocol ) - “A set of communications protocols used between components in process automation systems. It was developed for communications between various types of data acquisition and control equipment. It plays a crucial role in SCADA systems, where it is used by SCADA Master Stations (aka Control Centers), Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), and Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)”.
“Multiple HART instruments may be connected directly in parallel with one another along the same wire pair, and information exchanged between those instruments and a host system, if the HART address numbers are set to non-zero values. Setting an instrument’s HART address to a non-zero value is all that is necessary to engage multidrop mode.
“The address numbers themselves are irrelevant, as long as they fall within the range of 1 to 15 and are unique to that network” ( I.e. there may be up to 15 devices in such a network ).
The support of SPI is in the Arduino implementation of the Firmata protocol, not in the PHP code
There is no webserver on the Arduino / Teensy.
Warning: As soon as you open a serial connection on an original “Arduino” board, a Reset is processed. There are implementations of Arduino boards, where you can prevent that by cutting a physical wire on the printed circuit board.
Problem: With a standard programming approach, a webserver on the Arduino would open a serial connection at each HTTP request and close the serial connection afterwards, causing the unwanted Reset.
There are some ugly Ardunio project which depend on this behaviour and don´t overcome it.
Thats why this “Carica” project opens a permanent serial connection.
Standad UARTs of microcontrollers are not suitable for implementation of PROFIBUS, MODBUS or other high-speed serial communication ( as a standard UART can't be configured to run with 12 Mhz bus clock speed ). You need specially designed devices ( on the microcontroller chip ) for such.