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[hemmerling] Embedded Systems

Events & Conferences

Analog Computers

    • “THE ANALOG THING (THAT) is a high-quality, low-cost, open-source, and not-for-profit cutting-edge analog computer”.
    • “Analog Computing for the Future. portable - affordable - open source - eye-opening”.

Design of Embedded Systems

Free and affordable Multi-Platform Embedded Development Tools

Compiler & Assembler Tools


  • The generic and OpenSource machine emulator and virtualizer QEMU, Savannah "QEMU".
  • The OpenSource SkyEye, SourceForge "SkyEye", SourceForge "SkyEye" - “SkyEye is a very fast full system simulator which takes llvm as IR of dynmic compiled framework.. It can simulate series ARM, Coldfire, Mips, Powerpc, Sparc, x86 and Blackfin DSP Processor”.


  • Simtel - 8-bit emulators/simulators/virtual machines.
  • EMULATORS by Chris Salo.

6502 Platform

6502 Opcodes


C64 Emulator

  • C64 Emulator ( ) by Thomas Hochgoetz, for Windows.
    • By default, the emulator supports US keyboard layout only ( US Windows keyboard, US C64 keyboard ) :-(, see “Configuration / Keys”.
    • There is no keyboard language setting, e.g. English, German... :-(.
    • You may change the key assignement for single keys. But be careful: If you change the configuration, there is no reset. You must deinstall and reinstall the software to get the original key assigment back.
  • C64 Emulator ( ) "Create your own C64.exe" - “Create your own C64.exe - Hand made”.


The Emulator
Keyboard Assignments for German Windows Keyboard & "Host keyboard layout = German"
  • Non-SHIFT keys on the Windows keyboard are mapped to C64 uppercase letters.
  • SHIFT keys on the Windows keyboard are mapped to C64 graphics characters.
Key on PC keyboard Character in VICE C64 Emulation Comment
ß ~ ← is displayed
´ § Pound ( £ ) is displayed
ü @
+ +
ö :
ä ;
# # Standard keymapping
< < Standard keymapping
, , Standard keymapping
. . Standard keymapping
- - Standard keymapping
! ! Standard keymapping
Standard keymapping
§ # Standard keymapping
$ $ Standard keymapping
% % Standard keymapping
& & Standard keymapping
/ / Standard keymapping
( ( Standard keymapping
) ) Standard keymapping
= = Standard keymapping
? ? Standard keymapping
` C64 Graphics character
' ' Standard keymapping
> > Standard keymapping
; ; Standard keymapping
: : Standard keymapping
_ _ Standard keymapping
ALT 8 [ Standard keymapping
ALT 9 ] Standard keymapping
ALT Q @ Standard keymapping
ALT ß No input The cursor goes to top left position
ALT + ~ Standard keymapping
ALT < § Pound ( £ ) is displayed



General Resources
  • How to load a software, e.g. VolksFORTH:
C64 / VC20 Keyboards


8080, 8085, Z80 Platform and Z8 Platform

8080 & 8085 Opcodes

Free, Legacy and Abandonware Tools

Free CPU Emulators and CP/M Operating System Simulators

Free online CPU Emulators and CP/M Operating System Simulators



Intel 8086 Platform


Free and Commercial 80x86 Assemblers



8051 Platform

80166, 80C166, 83C166, C166, C167, XC167, XE166, ST10 Platform

Intel Atom Platform

Intel Quark / Intel Galileo / Intel Edison / Intel 80486 & 80586 Platform

The Chip, the Boards

Where to buy

Simatic IOT2000, SIEMENS MindConnect Nano & SIEMENS MindSphere

Simatic IOT2000
SIEMENS MindConnect Nano & SIEMENS MindSphere


Altera Platform

Analog Devices Platform

ARM Platform

Cypress Semiconductor Corporation

PSoC 1

PSoC 3

PSoC 4 ( ARM Cortex M0 ), PSoC 5 ( ARM Cortex M3 ), PSoC 7 ( ARM Cortex M4 ) CPUs

Espressif Systems ( ESP8266, ESP32,.. )

  • See

Freescale / Motorola Platform

Freescale Semiconductor Inc. ( now merged with NXP )




Free Cross-Compilers for 68K

Commercial Cross-Compilers for 68K

CP/M 68k Emulators




Power Architecture / PowerPC

Pressure Sensors

Infineon Technologies

Cypress Semiconductor

Infineon Technologies ARM

AURIX based on TriCore

Microchip Technology Inc.

Atmel Platform ( by Microchip Technology Inc. )

Microchip Platform - PIC Microcontrollers & dsPIC Digital Signal Controllers

Microsemi Corporation, a Microchip Company ( formerly: Actel )



The Company, the Projects


Parallax Propeller

The Chips & Eval Boards

Software Delopment Tools

  • PropellerIDE - “An easy-to-use, cross-platform IDE for the Parallax Propeller”.





  • EN.Wikipedia "Parallax Propeller", DE.Wikipedia "Parallax Propeller" - “Die Hardware des Propeller wurde als Verilog-Source unter der GPL veröffentlicht. Auch der ROM-Code wurde als kommentierter Quelltext veröffentlicht. Somit kann der gesamte Prozessor nachvollziehbar auf einem FPGA nachgebildet werden. Auch die Entwürfe für den P2 sind öffentlich verfügbar, sodass man den Chip vorab erproben und Verbesserungsvorschläge einbringen kann”.

Raspberry Pi Pico Board ( RP2040 MPU )




Renesas Technology Platform

ST Microelectronics Platform

8 Bit

32 Bit

Texas Instruments Platform


Motor Drive & Control

Xilinx Platform

ZX Family of Microcontrollers

Chips & Boards

Quality Criteria of Chips & Boards

  • Does the board and the chips respectively are equipped with FIFO buffers or at least a buffer at all, for SPI and I2C interfaces ?
  • Is the chip designed to serve in CAN-Bus applications ? The application designers expect 5 Volts support by the CPU for simple CAN-Bus support.
    • Atmel ATmega → Operating voltage (Vcc) = 2.7V .. 5.5 V → easy CAN-Bus support.
    • Atmel ATxmega → Operating voltage (Vcc) = 1.6V to 3.6V” → not really suitable for simple CAN-Bus support.


Manufacturers of Chips & Boards

List of MCU Manufacturers

  • Actel
  • Alcatel - Lucent Technologies
  • Altera
  • AMD
  • Analog Devices Incorporated / ADI
  • ARM
  • Atheros
  • Avago
  • Broadcom
  • Ikanos / Centillium
  • Conexant / Mindspeed
  • Cypress
  • Elpida
  • Fairchild Semiconductor
  • Freescale Semiconductor
  • Fujitsu
  • Globespan Virata
  • Hitachi
  • Hynix
  • IBM
  • Infineon
  • Intel
  • Intersil
  • Lattice Semiconductor
  • Linear Technology / LTC
  • LSI Logik-Schaltungen / Agere
  • Marvell
  • Matsushita/Panasonic
  • Maxim
  • MediaTek
  • Microchip
  • Micron
  • Mitsubishi
  • Nanya
  • National Semiconductor / NSC
  • NEC Electronics
  • Nvidia
  • NXP / Philips
  • Oki
  • ON Semiconductor
  • Powerchip
  • ProMOS
  • Qualcomm
  • Renesas

The strongest competitors of Texas Instruments in the MCU industry

  • Analog Devices Incorporated / ADI
  • Atmel
  • Fairchild Semiconductor
  • Freescale Semiconductor
  • Hitachi
  • Linear Technology / LTC
  • Maxim
  • Microchip
  • National Semiconductor / NSC
  • NXP / Philips
  • ON Semiconductor
  • Renesas
  • STMicroelectronics / STM
  • Toshiba
  • Xilinx

Vendors of Boards

Programming Languages for Embedded Systems

Free Software Tools for Embedded Design

Commercial Software and Hardware Tools for Embedded Design


Commercial Toolchain for Scheduling Optimization

  1. Functional Requirements.
  2. AbsInt Angewandte Informatik: “aiT Worst-Case Execution Time Analyzers”.
  3. Symtavision: “SymTA/S” ( looks like a project scheduling software, using a kind of Gantt diagram :-) ).
  4. Loop back to 1.

Some special Embedded Hardware

LCD Displays

CAN-Bus Interface

Ethernet Interface


USB Devices with Human Interface Device ( HID ) for Windows

USB Interfaces

USB to Serial

USB Traffic Analyzer

Power Supply for USB Devices

  • Search for “Power Pack”, “Emergency Power”, “Emergency Battery”, “Notakku für Handy”, “Not-Akku für Mobiltelephon”, “Mobiler USB Ersatzakku”.
  • Search for “power pack mobil usb” at
  • Differ between solutions with standard USB mother interface and with Mini-USB interface !

Accu Supply

  • “Nokia DC-11 Extra Power”.
  • “ZNEX Power Pack”
  • “APC Power Expander”.

Battery Supply

USB hub with a wall power supply ( Steckernetzteil )

Toys of Washing Machines


List of Embedded Application Ideas & Code for such Applications


Device Manager

  • A device manager ( or bootloader ) which just accepts valid firmware updates, but prevents device takeover by third parties, or intellectual property violations.


Expert Language

  • Diversification - If you gain an information by different means / channels / calculations / sensors.
  • Rejuvenation - Pressing the RESET button at an embedded system, so that it works fine again. Slogan “My system need a reset every month” :-).

Expert Knowledge

  • 8-bit CPUs have little “residual current” / “cut-off” due to its crude dice, while 32-bit CPUs have much more “residual current” / “cut-off” due to its little structures.
  • Experts acknowledge the work of “Silicon Labs” ( formerly: “Energy Micro” ) to create 32-bit ARM CPUs with litte “residual current” / “cut-off”, little in comparison to the standard with 32-bit CPUs and especially ARM CPUs. Some new ARM CPU derivates of STMicroelectronics ( i.e. STML053R8T6, based on Cortex M0+ ) are also known to fulfill that criteria.
  • 32-bit CPUs may be cheaper than 8-bit CPUs, as the chip manufacturer can produce more chips on the same space... due to the smaller structures of 32-bit chips and so the smaller dice size.

Developer Training


Paper Magazines



Design of a embedded Microcontroller-based PLC, as Prototype for a later Replacement by a professional Embedded-Linux based PLC

  • Customer: Small beer brewery
  • Application: Beer brewery control system, in 2020.
  • Design principles:
    • The embedded board is equipped with a 4x relais shield.
      • Digital-Out:
        • The selected relais shield is equipped with relais which have a valid input votage of is 3-32V, so that the voltage signals of both 3.3V and 5V based embedded boards as well as later 24V based professional PLCs can be used as input.
        • A 24V power supply connected to each of the relais, so that a the output of the switch operates like a “Digital-Out” channel.
      • Analog-In:
        • The sensors are connected to the PLC via measuring converters ( German: “Messumformer” ).
        • For the embedded microcontroller-based PLC prototype, a measuring converter with output suitable to the embedded board ( i.e. 0-3.3V or 0-5V output range ) is used, which is directly connected to A/D ports of the embedded PLC.
        • For the later professional embedded-Linux based PLC, a different measuring converter is used, with 0-24V output range, suitable to be connected to the A/D port of a PLC or PLC A/D module, respectively.
      • Digital-In & Analog-Out are not used.


Experts, Conferences, Fairs


Conferences, Fairs, Competitions

Event Idea "Embedded Software Boot Camp"


Communities, Forums, Newsgroups

Appropriate OpenDirectory Directory Pages

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